by Amir Abbas Babasafari, Alexandre Campane Vidal, Guilherme Furlan Chinelatto, Jean Rangel, Mateus Basso, published at Petroleum Science and Technology, November 2022, 1-17.
Machine learning techniques have been widely used in the oil and gas industry to improve the qualitative and quantitative characterization of subsurface reservoirs. Because rock properties are strongly influenced by lithological and sedimentological information, lithofacies classification is an important step in 3D reservoir modeling. The aim of this study is to use supervised classification algorithms to predict the spatial distribution pattern of lithofacies classes using borehole and seismic data. In this study, lithofacies classes are distributed away from the wells using a machine-learning classifier. Seismic data attributes extracted from well locations are utilized as training data features in various supervised classification algorithms. Machine learning classifiers trained and evaluated for lithofacies classification include K-nearest neighbors, support vector machine, Gaussian naive Bayes, decision tree, Gradient Boosting, and Random Forests. A number of parameters are optimally determined in order to achieve the highest value of classification accuracy in the model. Comparing machine learning classifiers based on evaluation metrics reveals that ensemble-based decision tree approaches such as Random Forests and Gradient Boosting are the most effective for supervised classification. The results are validated using testing data and have an 80% classification accuracy. The predicted volume of lithofacies classes contributes to improved 3D reservoir modeling for the pre-salt carbonate reservoir.