by Abouzar Mirzaei-Paiaman, Susana M.G. Santos, Denis J. Schiozer, published at Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Volume 201, June 2021, 108457
Closed-loop field development and management (CLFDM) is defined as a periodic update of an uncertain field model using the latest measurements (data assimilation), followed by production optimization aiming mainly at maximizing the field economic value. This paper provides a review of the concepts and methodologies in the CLFDM. We first discuss different types of uncertainty encountered in field development and management. Then, concepts, components, and elements of CLFDM are presented. We then discuss and compare different automated methodologies for data assimilation, followed by explaining a hierarchy of different decision variables for production optimization including design variables (G1), life-cycle control rules (G2L), short-term controls (G2S), and revitalization variables (G3). We continue with explanations for the use of closed-loop in both the development and management phases of a field project. We also discuss and compare different methodologies for production optimization. Afterwards, objective functions for production optimization are presented, followed by the description of concepts and different approaches for selecting representative models to speed up solutions. This paper also highlights the necessity of integrated modeling of reservoir and production systems in CLFDM, and also the need for a standardized stepwise approach to apply the CLFDM by discussing one method from the literature. Finally, we summarize all the previous CLFDM studies on the basis of aspects covered in this paper, and suggest open areas for future research to enhance the use of CLFDM.